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Parenthetical citations

Parenthetical citing is used to cite sources, where it may be quotes or paraphrases, in your essay.

How to parenthetically cite properly:

  • Sources with Author and Page: Write the last name of the author and then the page you refered to in his or her book. For example: (Baker 223)
  • Sources without Author: If no author is given, use the name of the book in place of the author. For example: (Science Today 45)
  • Internet Sources: When citing an Internet source, give only the name of the author, and if that is not provided, give the name of the Internet site. You do not have to put page numbers. For Example: (Smith) or (The Website of Many Uses).
Where to put the parenthetical citations:
  • Place parenthetical citations at the end of the sentence you are paraphrasing and quoting. For example: The destruction of the argentine is due to many socioeconomic factors (Taylor 33).
  • Even when quoting, place the parenthetical citations after the quotations. For example: "Mamma always said stupid is as stupid does" (Gump 89).
Long quotes
When quoting four lines or more, indent every line you are quoting by one inch (or 10 spaces) and do not use quotes. For example:
The use of nuclear weapons in today's society is strikingly alarming. Though the United States is the only country to employ it in the past, they are at the same time the country that condemns its use the most. While this may seem hypocritical, is it the most proper action for the United States to make as the global leader. (Taparia 9)
For More Information

EasyBib's advanced citation service, MyBib Pro, provides a handy parenthetical citation wizard. Or, you can also check out St. Cloud State University's parenthetical citation documentation for more information.